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Table 1 Specific genes involved in the ethiology of depression and post-stroke depression.

From: Post-stroke depression and the aging brain

Gene symbol Description Gene Function Gene expression Disease Human/animal data Ref.
Depression
GSK- β Synthase-kinase-3β Central regulator of circadian rhythms Up Depression Transgenic mice [90]
CLOCK Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput Central regulator of circadian rhythms SNP DepressionBipolar disorders Transgenic mice [91]
ARNTL(BMAL1) Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like PER1 activator SNP Sleep disorders Human sample, [92, 93]
NPAS2 Neuronal PAS domain protein 2 Part of a molecular clock SNP Mood disorders Human sample, [92, 94]
Synapse-related genes in depression
CALM2 Calmodulin 2 Cytokinesis regulator Down Depression Animal model [89]
SYN1 Synuclein1 Synaptogenesis and neurotransmitter release Down Depression Animal model [89, 95]
Depression in the elderly
PER2 Period circadian clock 2 Central regulator of circadian rhythms SNP Sleep disorders Ageing brain Human sample Animal model of ageing [92, 93, 96]
Up
PER3 Period circadian clock 3 Central regulator of circadian rhythms SNP Sleep disorders, Aged brain Human sample [93, 9799]
5-HTTLPR Serotonin transporter promotor Serotonin transporter SNP Depression in the elderly Human sample [100]
TUBB4 Tubulin, Beta 4A Class IVa Constituent of microtubules Down Depression Ageing Animal model [89, 101]
Depression and recovery after stroke
BDNF Human brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Growth factor in the brain SNP Depression Recovery after injury Human sample, Animal model [102, 103]
SLC6A4 Solute Carrier Family 6 Member 4 Membrane protein transporter of serotonin SNP Depression Stroke recovery Human sample [9, 83]
GATA1 GATA Binding Protein 1 Transcription factors Upregulation Depression Stroke recovery Animal model [104]
HTR2B 5-Hydroxytryptamine (Serotonin) Receptor 2B Serotonin receptor Upregulation Poststroke depression in elderly Animal model [16, 34]
PNOC Prepronociceptin Opioid receptor Downregulation Poststroke depression in elderly Animal model [16, 34]
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