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Table 5 Reactive astrogliosis

From: Astrocytes reassessment - an evolving concept part one: embryology, biology, morphology and reactivity

Reactive astrogliois Changes in astrocytes morphology Changes in molecules expression
Upregulated molecules Upregulated or downregulated molecules
Mild to moderate astrogliosis • Hypertrophy of cell body • Structural elements: GFAP, nestin, vimentin • Inflammatory cell regulators: cytokines, growth factors, glutathione
• Astrocytes processes are are numerous and thicker • Transcriptional regulators: STAT3, NFκB, Rheb-m TOR, cAMP, Olig2, SOX9 [6165]. • Transporters and pumps: AQP4 and Na+/K+ transporters [61, 6669]
• Glutamate transporter [7073]
• The non-overlapping domains of individual astrocytes are preserved   • Vascular regulators: PGE, NO [74, 75]
• Energy provision: lactate [76]
• Molecules implicated in synapse formation and
Severe astrogliosis and glial scar • Intense hypertrophy of cell body   • Remodeling: thrombospondin and Complement C1q [77, 78]
• Significant extension of processes   • Molecules implicated in oxidative stress and providing protection from oxidative stress: NO, NOS, SOD, Glutathione [67, 68, 79]
• Proliferation   
• Overlapping of individual domains   
• Substantial reorganization of tissue architecture [60]