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Table 1 Reported changes in the rodent CeA in different pain situations

From: The amygdala between sensation and affect: a role in pain

Pain situation a Changes in the CeA Reference
Acute somatic stimulations Changes (mostly excitation) in electrical activity [22, 23]
Visceral pain
  ip acetic acid - Increased c-fos mRNA expression [24]
  Esophageal acetic acid - Increased c-Fos immunoreactivity [25]
  Colitis - Increased neuronal excitability [26, 27]
- Enhanced the PB-CeA, but not the BLA-CeA transmission
- Increased crf mRNA expression
  Cystitis - Increased c-Fos and Krox-24 imunoreactivities [28, 29]
- Increased crf mRNA expression
Inflammatory pain
  Intraplantar formalin - Induced ERK activation in the right CeA [30, 31]
  Acid-induced muscle pain - Increased ERK activation [32]
- Enhanced the PB-CeA transmission
  Knee joint arthritis - Increased spontaneous activity in the right CeA [3336]
- Increased neuronal excitability in the right CeA
- Enhanced the PB-CeA and the BLA-CeA transmission
- Increased mGluR1 and mGluR5 expression
- Increased phosphorylation of NR1 subunit
Neuropathic pain
  Sciatic nerve ligation or section - Increased spontaneous and evoked activity differentially in the left and right CeA [3741]
- Enhanced the PB-CeA transmission
- Increased crf mRNA expression and CRF immunoreactivity
- Increased glucocorticoid receptor mRNA expression
- Increased cell proliferation
  1. a Pain situation: acute somatic stimulations: nociceptive mechanical pinches or thermal stimulations applied on different body parts; ip acetic acid: intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid; colitis: inflammation by intracolonic infusion TNBS (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid) or zymosan; cystitis: urinary bladder inflammation by intraperitoneal injection of cyclophosphamide; intraplantar formalin: intraplantar injection of diluted formalin in hindpaw; Acid-induced muscle pain: intramuscular injection of acidic saline (pH4) in gastrocnemius; knee-joint arthritis: intraarticular injection of kaolin-caragenean in knee; Sciatic nerve ligation or section: loose or tight ligation of sciatic nerve or spinal roots, or sparing section of roots.