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Table 2 Metabolites with significant group differences and their relationship with clinical symptoms

From: Metabolite profiling in posttraumatic stress disorder

Substance class   Comparison PTSD vs. Controls Symptom correlation
  Metabolite VIP p FDR d [95% CI] r CAPS p FDR
Glycerophospholipids        
  PE(17:1(9Z)18:0) ↑ 1.94 .0007 .020 −1.38 [−2.28, −0.48] .466 .0004 .019
  PE(P-18:1(11Z)/15:0) ↑ 1.70 .004 .073 −1.04 [−1.84, −0.24] .324 .008 .058
  PE-Nme(O-14:0/O-14:0) ↑ 1.46 .007 .073 −0.92 [−1.63, −0.21] .270 .020 .102
  PE-NMe2(O-14:0/O-14:0) ↑ 1.37 .023 .163 −0.79 [−1.51, −0.06] .185 .125 .325
Fatty acid metabolites        
  Palmitoylethanolamide ↓ 1.91 .0004 .020 1.28 [0.54, 2.02] -.391 .001 .019
  Palmitic amide ↓ 1.17 .044 .204 0.67 [−0.02, 1.37] -.190 .102 .294
Nucleosides        
  Guanosine ↓ 1.22 .039 .204 0.71 [−0.01, 1.43] -.391 .0009 .019
  Inosine ↓ 1.25 .041 .204 0.69 [0.00, 1.39] -.356 .002 .027
Bile acids and derivates        
  3α-hydroxy-5β-cholan-24-oic acid ↓ 1.53 .006 .073 0.89 [0.18, 1.6] -.347 .003 .029
  7α,12α-dihydroxy-3-oxocholest-4-en-26-oic acid ↑ 1.55 .007 .073 −0.98 [−1.72, −0.24] .310 .011 .065
  Glycocholic Acid ↓ 1.53 .023 .163 0.82 [0.12, 1.53] -.301 .016 .085
Monosaccharides        
  N-Acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate ↓ 1.50 .024 .163 0.83 [0.05, 1.61] -.392 .002 .027
Anti-Oxidants        
  Pantothenic Acid ↓ 0.94 .044 .204 0.55 [−0.14, 1.24] -.323 .005 .047
  1. VIP, Variable Importance in Projection; FDR, False Discovery Rate corrected p-values; d, Cohen’s d; CI, Confidence Interval; CAPS, Clinician Administered PTSD Scale; r, Kendall’s τ correlations; ↑ and ↓ refer to up- and down-regulation in PTSD, respectively.
  2. NB: The univariate group comparisons PTSD vs. controls were performed by t-tests, if test residuals were normally distributed and Mann–Whitney U-test if residuals were not normally distributed.