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Table 2 Average scores (standard deviations) in the used scales after grouping the participants by sleep hygiene awareness, sleep quality and diurnal preference (please see text for details)

From: Sleep hygiene awareness: its relation to sleep quality and diurnal preference

Group Sleep beliefs scale Sleep condition indicator Composite scale of morningness
Sleep hygiene awareness    
Low (N = 139) 2.9 (2.2) 10.3* (7.2) 34.9 (6.9)
Intermediate (N = 349) 9.1 (1.9) 12.1 (7.3) 34.6 (7.4)
High (N = 158) 14.8 (1.7) 13.2 (8.0) 35.1 (7.8)
Sleep quality    
Poor (N = 140) 10.9 (4.5) 23.1 (3.3) 33.2 (8.6)
Intermediate (N = 356) 9.3 (4.3) 11.5 (3.6) 34.5 (6.9)
Good (N = 150) 8.1* (4.6) 2.9 (1.7) 37.2* (6.6)
Diurnal preference    
Evening (N = 65) 9.6 (4.6) 16.0* (7.5) 21.1 (2.7)
Intermediate (N = 499) 9.1 (4.4) 11.7 (7.7) 34.8 (4.9)
Morning (N = 82) 9.4 (4.5) 10.5 (7.7) 45.9 (1.9)
  1. Significant differences are starred.