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Figure 2 | Journal of Molecular Psychiatry

Figure 2

From: Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations

Figure 2

Effects of voluntary exercise in the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. Legend: Δ = no change; BDNF mRNA = brain derived neurotrophic factor mRNA; c-fos = protein induced acutely by several factors including cytokines; COX = cytochrome oxidase, an indicator of brain regional functional activity; CRF = corticotropin releasing factor/hormone; 5HT = serotonin; 5HTT = serotonin transporter; 5HT1A mRNA = serotonin receptor 1A mRNA; 5HT1B mRNA = serotonin receptor 1B mRNA; Δ α1b-ADR mRNA = α1b-adrenergic receptor (α1b-ADR) mRNA; α-synuclein = precursor protein of amyloid; DRN = dorsal raphe nucleus; ER = endoplasmic reticulum; galanin = a regulatory peptide cleaved from preprogalanin; GR = glucocorticoid receptor; H = hypothalamus; HSP72 = heat shock protein 72; mtDNA: nuclear DNA = mitochondrial DNA to nuclear DNA ratio; NOS = nitric oxide synthase; NTS = nucleus tractus solitarii; P = pituitary; preprogalanin = a precursor of galanin; PVN = paraventricular nucleus; BG = basal ganglia; S = striatum; VTA = ventral tegmental area.

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