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Table 3 ACT-Training

From: Preparation for teacher collaboration in inclusive classrooms – stress reduction for special education students via acceptance and commitment training: A controlled study



Exercises resp. metaphors

Stress and symptoms of stress

What does cause work stress in inclusive classrooms?

“Sink metaphor”

What are your symptoms of stress?

The participants are told that the training focuses on changing how individuals react to stress. It is not about changing the sources of stress!

“Stress diary” (Homework)

“Creative hopelessness” and “control is the problem”

Beginning ACT:

“Do not think about …”

What have you done to deal with stress and how that has worked for you? (Consequences of control)


Willingness as an alternative strategy

“Just noticing”(willingness exercise) (Homework)

Identify your stress buttons

Identify thoughts and emotions that cause stress

“How your mind works”(Exercise with adjectives)

Get off your“buts”and replace“but”by the word“and”

“The I-cannot-Wall and the Gate-of-willingness”

“Leaves on the stream”(Homework)

“What to accept?”

Self as context

Do not struggle: find your observing-self

“Observer Exercise”(Homework)

Think about the different roles you play in your live and which thoughts and feelings are linked to each role

“Sky and weather-metaphor”

“Which roles are you playing in your live? ”


Do not get caught up by thoughts, feelings, and emotions

“Thoughts as feathers”

“This is just the role of… I am playing – naming the story”

Value clarification

What do you want your life to be about and what do you want to stand for


To differ between values and goals

“Value diary”(Homework)

“Value target”

Committed action

“There is nothing good: unless one does it!”

“Train metaphor”

Goals, actions and barriers

“Operationalize your goals”

“What could go wrong? ”

Committed action: NVC

Introducing the four-part Nonviolent Communication process

NVC-exercises for each part of the NVC-process [47]

Practical testing of NVC during role plays with video feedback

Role plays

  1. Abbreviations: ACT Acceptance and Commitment Training, NVC nonviolent communication